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Low cost private schooling in India: Is it pro poor and equitable?

Budget Private Schools, research, Research

Author: Joanna Harma

ABSTRACT: India has seen an explosion in low-fee private (LFP) schooling aimed at the poorer strata of society, and this once-urban phenomenon has spread in the last decade to rural areas, with implications for equity due to the level of direct costs involved. This study explores whether or not LFP schooling in rural India is pro-poor and equitable, and finds that these schools are unaffordable to the bottom two wealth quintiles of families. This conclusion has implications for policy formation and shows that increased reliance on a market in education will not help to achieve equitable access to primary schooling for all. Click here to read more.

International Journal of Educational Development, January 2011

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How teacher turnover harms student achievement

research, Research

Authors: Matthew Ronfeldt, University of Michigan; Susanna Loeb, Stanford University; Jim Wyckoff, University of Virginia
Abstract: Researchers and policymakers often assume that teacher turnover harms student achievement, but recent evidence calls into question this assumption. Using a unique identification strategy that employs grade-level turnover and two classes of fixed-effects models, this study estimates the effects of teacher turnover on over 850,000 New York City 4th and 5th grade student observations over eight years. The results indicate that students in grade-levels with higher turnover score lower in both ELA and math and that this effect is particularly strong in schools with more low-performing and black students. Moreover, the results suggest that there is a disruptive effect of turnover beyond changing the distribution in teacher quality. Click here to read more.

Center for Longitudinal Data in Education Research, 21 March 2012

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The relative importance of social and cultural capital for educational performance: Eastern versus Western Europe

Research

Author: Prokic-Breuer, Tijana
Abstract: The sociology of education has a long-standing tradition of researching the causes of educational inequality. As the massive body of literature suggests, it is above all ability – the differences in intelligence and personality – that explains variations in performance (Dronkers, 2010). Family background comes in second when examining factors that influence educational performance. A child’s family background consists of a variety of aspects, including parents’ educational level and the family’s cultural endowments (Dronkers, 2010). All of the aspects portray the total environment that the child comes from, which includes financial, occupational,
social and cultural endowments. Click here to read more.

Discussion Paper, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB), Research Professorship Demographic Development, Social Change, and Social Capital, No. SP I 2011-403, 2011

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Positive but also negative effects of ethnic diversity in schools on educational performance? An empirical test using PISA data

Research

Authors: J. Dronkers and Rolf van der Velden

Abstract: We will use the cross-national Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006 data for native students and students with an immigrant background, in which both cohorts are 15 years old. A greater ethnic diversity of school populations in secondary education hampers the educational performance of students with an immigrant background but does not significantly affect that of native students. The sociocultural diversity of schools
has no effect on educational performance. Click here to read more.

CReAM Discussion Paper No 11/12

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ON THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL VOUCHERS

Research, School Vouchers, Vouchers

Author: Epple, D.N and Romano, R

Abstract: Two significant challenges hamper analyses of collective choice of educational vouchers. One is the multi-dimensional choice set arising from the interdependence of the voucher, public education spending, and taxation. The other is that household preferences between public and private schooling vary with the policy chosen. Even absent a voucher, preferences over public spending are not single-peaked; a middling level of public school spending may be less attractive to a household than either high public school spending or private education coupled with low public spending. We show that Besley and Coate’s (1997) representative democracy provides a viable approach to overcome these hurdles. We provide a complete characterization of equilibrium with an endogenous voucher. Click here to read more.

NBER Working Paper 17986, April 2012

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DEMOGRAPHIC STRUCTURE AND THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF PUBLIC EDUCATION

Finances & Budgets, Global news, research

Author: Poterba, J.M
This paper examines the relationship between demographic structure and the level of govemment spendingon K-12education. Panel data for the U.S. states over the 1960-1990 period suggests that an increasein the fraction of elderly residents in ajurisdictionis associated with a significant reduction inperchild educational spending. This reduction isparticularly large when the elderly residents and the school-age population are from different racial groups. Variation in the size of the school-age population does not result in proportionate changes in education spending, so students in states with larger school-age populations receive lower per-student spending than those in states with smaller numbers of potential students. These results provide support for models of generational competition in the allocation of public sector resources. They also suggest that the effect of cohort size on government-mediated transfers must be considered in analyzing how cohort size affects economic well-being. Click here to read more.

NBER Working Paper 5677, July 1996

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Does Information Improve School Accountability? Results of a Large Randomized Trial.

Research

Authors: Pandey. P, Goyal, S and Sundararaman, V

The problem of poor quality outcomes is a more general one in various public services across many developing countries. Targeting resources efficiently to communities and getting public workers to perform have remained a challenge for many public services, including education. Weak mechanisms of accountability are a key reason for indifferent service delivery; workers rarely face any censure for their absences or below par performance.

Monitoring by the local community—who have a direct stake in the quantity and quality of public services that are available to them—can play a fundamental role in improving public service delivery. To this end, a number of developing countries, including India, are decentralizing control over local public services to local communities. The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), a nation-wide public scheme initiated in 2001 to universalize elementary quality education in India, aimed to increase accountability of schools to communities‘ through greater involvement of
village education committees and parent-teacher associations. Click here to read more.

The World Bank Discussion Paper Series, December 2011

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School Participation in Rural India

Research

Authors: Drèze, J and Kingdon, G.G

This paper presents and analysis of the determinants of school participation in rural north India, based on a recent household survey which includes detailed information on school characteristics. School participation, especially among girls, responds to a wide range of variables, including parental education and motivation, social background, dependency ratios, work opportunities, village development, teacher postings, teacher regularity and midday meals. The remarkable lead achieved by the state of Himachal Pradesh is fully accounted for by these variables. School quality matters, but it is not related in a simple way to specific inputs. Click here to read more.

The Development Economics Discussion Paper Series, August 1999

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Scheme for Augmenting School Education through Public Private Partnership Report

Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), Research

PPP in school education is essentially an arrangement where the private sector partner participates in the provision of services traditionally provided by the government. It is usually characterized by an agreement between the government and the private sector, with the latter undertaking to deliver an agreed service on the payment of a unitary charge by the government. The need for PPP in school education primarily arises out of the government‟s commitment to provide world-class education to under-privileged children who cannot afford the tuition fee that a private school would normally charge. While access to quality education for the underprivileged is traditionally expected from government schools, they alone may not be able to fulfil this enormous task. The justification for PPP schools arises primarily from the need to accelerate the expansion of education, supplement investment and enable different models for improving the quality of education. Click here to read more.

The Report of the Sub-group is submitted for consideration of the Ministry of HRD, 25 May 2010

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Estimating Wealth Effects Without Expenditure Data—Or Tears: An Application To Educational Enrollments In States Of India

Research

Authors: Filmer, D and Pritchett, L

Abstract
Using data from India, we estimate the relationship between household wealth and children’s school enrollment. We proxy wealth by constructing a linear index from asset ownership indicators, using principal-components analysis to derive weights. In Indian data this index is robust to the assets included, and produces internally coherent results. State-level results correspond well to independent data on per capita output and poverty. To validate the method and to show that the asset index predicts enrollments as accurately as expenditures, or more so, we use data sets from Indonesia, Pakistan, and Nepal that contain information on both expenditures and assets. The results show large, variable wealth gaps in children’s enrollment across Indian states. On average a “rich” child is 31 percentage points more likely to be enrolled than a “poor” child, but this gap varies from only 4.6 percentage points in Kerala to 38.2 in Uttar Pradesh and 42.6 in Bihar. Click here to read more.

DEMOGRAPHY, Volume 38, Number 1, 115-132

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