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Many Below Poverty Line families unaware of Right To Education provisions

Access to education, Right to Education

JAIPUR: The Supreme Court on Thursday upheld the Constitutional validity of the right of children to get free and compulsory education under the Right To Education (RTE) Act which also makes it mandatory for the private schools to reserve 25% seats for the underprivileged children. While social activists hailed the ruling and the school authorities remained unimpressed, it would be long before the beneficiaries actually understand and gain out of the directive.

Lack of awareness is one of the major challenges that the state government needs to overcome to ensure that the directive is well implemented. Most people below the poverty line are unaware of the provisions under the Act and surprised to know that their kids too can go to a well-known private school in their areas.

Basanti Biswas, a mother of four children, said she works as a maid so that she can fulfill the needs of her children. “I can’t read and write, therefore I want my children to study and become something in their life. Our earnings are very low and don’t have enough money to pay the fees of a private school. I am sending my children to the government school but we are dissatisfied by the education provided there,” she said.

Most teachers in government schools don’t seem pay attention towards the education of their students. Some parents charged them with taking their children out of their classes before the time to their homes and engaged them in their household work. “My elder daughter who is in the 3rd standard was taken by her class teacher to her for household work. On the complaint of my daughter, I went to her school and she wasn’t there. She was never present whenever I went to her school,” a parent said.

Lavraj Singh Rathore, a screen printing worker and a father of three said, “I was happy when I heard the news that the government has passed the RTE Act. My daughter is two-year-old and my other two kids go to private schools. The school fee that I have to pay is Rs 900 for three months and my earnings are not well. It will be a good opportunity for our kids if they get a quality education and without fees. But I don’t know whether the schools will agree to this decision or not.”

Abdul, a fish seller said, “Since the last three years I haven’t sent my kid to school because I don’t have money to pay the fees.” Abdul was not aware about the RTE and when informed about it, he said does not have much hope from it. “I have been watching the functioning of various governments for the past 30 years. Tall promised are made but only few fulfilled,” he said, adding that he would be the happiest father if his kids could go back to school.

Munish kumar, an RTE activist said, “We will draw support from the students to create awareness on the provisions of Right to Education Act by distributing pamphlets and street plays in the slum areas.”

District education officer S C Meena said, “The state government has planned many activities to create awareness on the most important provisions of this Act which says that 25 % seats to be reserved for the economically disadvantage group.”

The Times of India, 16 April 2012


RTE status report

Access to education, Private schools, Right to Education

Almost 95.2 per cent of schools are not compliant with the complete set of Right to Education (RTE) infrastructure indicators. These shocking statistics came to light in the two-day RTE Stocktaking Convention which was recently held. The Convention aimed to address the pending gaps and detect the reasons behind the schools missing out on the deadline to meet the basic standard of education as highlighted by the RTE.

The RTE Act, 2009, which came into force on April 1, 2010, has left people disappointed by its slow implementation. The Central Government had given a three-year deadline to the State Governments to implement the Act. However, with a year to go for the deadline, the progress report of the last two years’ paints a dismal picture.

“The present status is bleak as more than 95 per cent schools do not stick to Government norms. After over 100 years of struggle now that we have the RTE Act in place, it is sad to see the laidback attitude of State Governments in executing the RTE as a fundamental right in the valid sense,” says Ambarish Rai, national convener of RTE forum.

Large number of teachers, educationalists and NGOs came together to talk on issues like development of State rules and Redressal Mechanisms.

The Forum also emphasised on the setting up of State Commission for Protection of Child Rights (SCPCRs)and Right to Education Protection Authorities (REPAs), School Management Committees (SMCs).

Other issues which were discussed included teacher recruitment, training, academic authorities, equal opportunity to disabled, migrant, and trafficked children, child labour etc.

Along with allocations, expenditures, too, are a cause for concern.

“Last year, the Government spent 78 per cent of the funds allocated for Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) and RTE. This year, the expenditure has dropped to 70 per cent,” Rai tells you.

According to District Information System for Education (DISE) report 2011, 40 per cent of schools failed to meet the desired teacher to pupil ratio of 1:30. Similarly, 70 per cent primary schools failed to attain the RTE teacher-pupil ratio of 1:35.

“This is a key issue in determining quality of education. To make sure RTE gets implemented well within the year, we are planning to hold more sessions in future,” says Anjela Taneja, Education Co-ordinator with Oxfam India.

Moreover, infrastructures remain a major issue to be dealt with.

“There is a huge infrastructural log jam that requires to be cleared, which unfortunately doubles the slow pace of execution. Around four per cent of habitations lack a primary school within a walking distance. We still have 16 million children comprising school dropouts and children who have never been to a school,” Rai adds.

The lack of awareness about the benefits of the RTE Act are a major hindrance. The need of the hour is to draft all compatible services to give an appropriate push for asking the State to implement the existing provisions of the RTE act and to eventually provide an equitable and quality education.

The mission before the civil society organisations and Government at this stage is huge and daunting. Civil society must act as a pressure group and watchdog while also extending support to the cause of education to the extent possible.

The Pioneer, 10 April 2012


Centre needs Rs 2.3 lakh crore to fund RTE initiative

Access to education, Finances & Budgets

NEW DELHI : With the Supreme Court bringing all recognized schools under the Right to Education (RTE) Act, the government will have to boost spending on its flagship programme to meet the estimated Rs 2.3 lakh crore needed to fund the initiative over 2010-2014.

RTE has been plagued with fund shortfalls with budgetary provision in the last two years being only half of what was estimated. The HRD ministry received Rs 21,000 crore in 2011-12 instead of Rs 43,903 crore. The allocation has gone up only marginally to Rs 25,000 crore in the current 2012-13 budget.

The estimated Rs 2.3 lakh crore, to be shared between Centre and states according to a 65:35 ratio, is also expected to go up as it does not include subsidy the government is to pay private schools to implement a 25% quota for economically disadvantaged students.

The RTE incorporates the successful Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) and the ministry had estimated it would need an allocation of Rs 48,000 crore in the current fiscal. Initially, the government had calculated that it would need Rs 40,500 crore in the first year of implementation.

According to educationist Vinod Raina, a key member of the RTE team, “RTE in general suffers from a financial crunch and there has also been a problem of states not being able to spend the funds allocated. There have also been constraints of teacher shortages.”

While RTE rollout has been hampered by a resource crunch and infrastructure bottlenecks for which the government has not always been to blame, targets set for UPA’s ambitious programme of social inclusiveness have not been met. The erosion of gender imbalances and reduction of dropout rates are still lagging targets.

Implementation of RTE targets still needs 12 lakh teachers and HRD minister Kapil Sibal has said six lakh posts have been sanctioned that need to be filled. RTE sets an ideal 30:1 student-teacher ratio for primary schools.

The overall annual dropout rate for 2009-10 was 9.1% and this has improved to 6.8% in 2010-11. Total enrollment has increased to 13.52 crore from 13.34 crore in the same period. But worryingly dropout rates have increased in states like Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Mizoram, Sikkim and Tripura.

There are about 1.29 million elementary schools in the country. Besides funding, shortage of teachers is a crucial hurdle to implementing the Act. According to the ministry, 43% of government schools have a pupil: teacher ratio of more than 30:1. About 9% schools are run by single teachers, while 20% have teachers without professional qualifications. There is an estimated shortage of 12 lakh teachers in eight states, and the worst affected include UP, Bihar and West Bengal.

A recent PAISA report by Accountability Initiative has seconded the government’s estimate that allocations to teachers, including salaries, training and teaching inputs such as teacher learning equipment, accounted for the largest share of the SSA budget.

In 2011-2012 teachers accounted for 44% of the budget. School infrastructure made up for the second largest share with a total allocation of 36%, while children (entitlement and special programmes) accounted for 10%.

While per child allocation has doubled from Rs 2, 004 in 2009-1010 to Rs 4, 269 in 2011-2012 the report says that a matching increase in quality parameters is absent. Raina says staggered targets depending upon progress of each state may be the answer to effective implementation.

The Times of India, 13 April 2012


Schools comply with education act

Budget Private Schools, Per Child Funding (PCF)

PATNA: Around 300 CBSE and ICSE-affiliated private schools in Bihar have already complied with the provisions of Right To Education (RTE) Act, 2009, to reserve 25% seats for poor students, joint director of primary education, R S Singh, said on Thursday.

Commenting on the Supreme Court ruling on the RTE Act, Singh said the state government had directed all the private schools early last year to comply with the provisions of the Act.

However, the SC verdict on Thursday, exempting the unaided minority schools from compliance with the RTE Act, brought relief to the management of unaided minority schools who had earlier got stay order from Patna high court against the state government’s directive to reserve 25% seats for poor students.

Singh told TOI that the state government would provide Rs 3,077 per student per annum to all the CBSE and ICSE affiliated private schools for bearing the cost of education of the students admitted under the 25% reserved category. He said 95% schools in the state were being run by the government, providing free education to the children under the provisions of RTE Act.

Singh clarified that under the provision of RTE Act, the government would provide the same amount to the private schools as was being spent on education of per student per annum in government schools. Once the amount per student changes, the same would be given to the private schools as well, he added.

The unaided private minority schools in Bihar not admitting 25% poor children were mostly the Christian minority schools which had contested the government directive in the high court. These schools include St Michael’s School, Loyola School, Notre Dame Academy, St Joseph’s Convent, St Xavier’s School, St Karen’s School and St Dominic Savio’s High School, in Patna.

Meanwhile, in compliance with the state government directive, two unaided minority schools, Patna Muslim School and Shatabdi School, Gaya, had already admitted 25% poor students in 2011 itself, said honorary secretary of Patna Muslim School, Abu Rizwan. He said the Patna Muslim School management might take a decision to continue with the 25% admission of poor students.

All the DAV schools in the state have started admitting 25% poor students from 2011 itself to comply with the RTE Act provisions.

The Times of India, 13 April 2012


RTE may spell end for colony schools

Autonomy, Budget Private Schools

NEW DELHI: If Right To Education norms are earnestly implemented, the regulations can place privately run neighbourhood schools, currently filling a crucial gap between government-run facilities and elite private schools, at the mercy of an inspector raj.

Provisions of the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act are fairly draconian in derecognizing schools that fail to fulfill conditions such teacher-student ratios and physical infrastructure within a three-year period since the enactment of the law that will end in March 2013.

With recent reports like the RTE Forum’s study pointing out that barely 5% of government schools meet the Act’s norms for facilities like playground space, toilets and laboratories, the neighbourhood school is not likely to fare much better although it meets a felt need, albeit imperfectly.

The Act’s intent to set out minimum norms and make running of schools less exploitative – capitation fees and underpaid staff are common – is seen as laudable but in the absence of a reliable oversight mechanism and a lack of planned development in most cities, the regulations can throttle private enterprise.

Section 19 of the Act clearly states that recognition to schools will be withdrawn where a school fails to adhere to the norms and standards and any one who violates this stipulation can face a fine of Rs 1 lakh. New schools must meet the norms.

It has been left to the local authority to provide free and compulsory education as well as ensure availability of neighbourhood schools. The local authority is to also track compliance by ensuring children from weaker sections are not discriminated against and in general “monitor functioning of schools in its jurisdiction”.

The rapid growth of private schools has been driven by a hunger for education, particularly in English, with the Annual Status of Education Report pointing out that nearly 50% of rural children pay for their education in private schools or to a private tutor. The figure is higher for cities.

In north India, the levels of private enrollment are around 30% and rising while the percentage for northeast is 40%. In states like Bihar and Orissa, where there is a larger deficit in private schools, students opt for additional private tuitions. It has even been seen that children enroll in government school for exams but actually attend private tuitions, only visiting schools for midday meals.

Despite hefty increases in government spending on education, parents are “voting with the feet,” noted Pratham, pointing to the trend of private schools finding favour with nearly all social classes.

The norms set out by RTE, the RTE Forum pointed out, included a separate toilet each for girls and boys, a playground and a library for every school with sufficient reading material, electrification of the school building, ramp access for disabled students, and computers.

On the whole, Indian schools, with government running close to 80% of them, woefully lack facilities. One in 10 schools are deficient in drinking water facilities, 40% do not have a functional common toilet while another 40% lack a separate toilet for girls.

Some 60% of schools are not electrified and few have computers. Close to half have student ratios higher than the norms prescribed by the Act.

The Times of India, 16 April 2012


What about the right to provide education?

Autonomy, Private schools

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009, known simply as theRTE, came a century after Gopal Krishna Gokhale made an impassioned plea to the Imperial Legislative Council for introducing free and compulsory primary education in India.

He said, ‘The state should accept in this country the same responsibility in regard to mass education that the government of most civilised countries are already discharging and that a well-considered scheme should be drawn up and adhered to till it is carried out. The well being of millions upon millions of children who are waiting to be brought under the influence education depends upon it.’

Nine decades after this speech, the Right to Education became a fundamental right, and 100 years later, the Indian government delivered the Act that allowed for Universal Public Education. The Act mandated that education not only be provided by government schools, but also that 25% of all seats in every school in India be reserved for children from economically weak sections. Needless to say, private schools had an objection and challenged the Act.

Last week the Supreme Court upheld the law, but exempted unaided minority schools from the ambit of the law.
Naturally, many are fuming about the restriction of economic choice of private schools and an assault on the right to do business, others are aghast that their children will be studying with the children of their servants, and there is outrage that minority appeasement is being followed by exempting unaided minority schools from following this law.

The first thing to remember is that education, especially school education in India, is not a business. It is not supposed to be run on the principles that govern a business — namely profit. Private schools across the country are run by a myriad of charitable public trusts.

The trusts receive land from the government at low or no cost and are supposed to, by law, reserve seats for economically weak classes, much the same as hospitals that are built on land granted by the government. Neither do. If a SC ruling is needed to ensure that these ‘charitable trusts’ are forced to honour the letter and spirit of their contracts, then so be it.

For those having kittens at the prospect of their children studying with servants’ children, they will get over it. It was probably the same reaction people had when the British Raj mandated that Indians of all castes had access to schools paid for by the government, or that white families had in the Southern American States when the government mandated the end of segregation in schools. The coming together of children from all backgrounds is going to do them all good. The children will possibly take to it a lot better than their parents.

The second, equally important thing to remember is that minority does not mean religious minority. It can mean any minority — religious, linguistic or indeed a sect. Many quality schools in cities fall under this category. The SC has exempted, in addition to religious schools run by unaided trusts, some of the best schools from being part of the RTE. And this exemption is discrimination.

This needs to be challenged because the law of the land applies to all, and there is no such thing as unaided. Trusts are given a wide range of tax exemptions on their activities and it can be argued that these constitute aid by the tax payer. It also needs to be repealed because you will have a slew of educational trusts applying for minority status, defeating the purpose of the law.

If you look beyond the cities, across states, private schools have begun providing education. This means schools run by trusts, and usually those trusts run by politicians. They were granted this to enable the state to provide better education for children. In many cases these trusts have taken over the infrastructure of existing government schools with the promise of providing better quality education. Should these not be required to provide free education to the economically disadvantaged?

Finally, the problem is not with either the RTE or the SC ruling. The problem is with governmental hypocrisy that decrees profit in education to be a ‘sin’.

Maybe, parents and schools should lobby the Supreme Court for allowing businesses to run schools on the principles that govern good business. Not allowing businesses to run schools and perpetuating this sham of ‘charitable trusts’ will stunt RTE, for the right to receive education will be best fulfilled when there is a corresponding right to provide education.

Daily News and Analysis, 16 April 2012


India: School revolution on the way?

Access to education, Budget Private Schools, Learning Achievements, Quality, Right to Education

NEW DELHI, India — In a landmark judgment this week, India’s Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of a law that requires almost all private schools to reserve 25 percent of their seats for poor students.

The decision potentially paves the way for huge changes in primary and secondary school education here.

In a country where a quarter of the population is illiterate and the caste system is still alive and well, the move is lauded by some as an equalizer on par with the decision to desegregate American schools in the 1960s.

“I see this entire process as the beginning of a revolution,” said Ashok Agarwal, a lawyer affiliated with an organization called Social Jurists, who says previously fewer than 1 percent of private schools made a sincere effort to admit poor students.

According to a recent survey conducted by Pratham, an NGO, 96.5 percent of Indian children between the ages of 6 and 14 are enrolled in schools.

But with private players charging as much as $200 per month compared to less than a dollar in fees at those run by the government, there are vast differences between the schools they attend.

Though India has more than a million goverment-run schools and only around 250,000 private ones, with rare exceptions only the very poor attend government institutions. The division reinforces a broad socio-economic gap between the haves and have nots. And some argue that the failure to educate the poor threatens to derail India’s economic miracle before it really gets rolling.

A recent survey conducted by The Program for International Student Assessment, an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) unit that tests students’ literacy reading, mathematics, and science, for instance, ranked India’s 15-year-olds second from the bottom among some 74 countries.

While the 25-percent quota will be difficult to implement — and some argue that it impinges on the rights of the private schools that have previously refused government aid — the move would see some of the nation’s wealthiest students sitting side-by-side with the poorest.

More from GlobalPost: India’s own Ivy League?

The Right to Education Act, passed in 2009, guarantees free and compulsory education for all children between the ages of 6 and 14. Answering a challenge to the act, the court directed all privately run schools to admit at least 25 percent students from socially and economically depressed families beginning this academic year. Only boarding schools and minority institutions that don’t receive government aid are exempt.

The right to education act places “an affirmative burden on all stakeholders in our society,” the court wrote on Thursday, in a 2:1 majority judgment upholding the provision.

High cost of reform

The Supreme Court’s move is causing tremors. Parents worry that admission to elite private schools will get even tougher. Schools worry about the administrative and financial burden of admitting more poor children.

But even the most optimistic proponents of the right to education law warn that there are still many hurdles ahead.“The judgment removed the uncertainty about the 25 percent, and we now know where it applies and where it doesn’t,” said Parth Shah, president of the New Delhi-based NGO, Center for Civil Society. “The hard work of figuring out the design, implementation, monitoring and assessment now has to be done.”

Already, for instance, private schools have argued that the plan to reimburse them only for the amount charged by the dismally failing government schools will expose them to a huge financial burden. Some are threatening to raise fees for paying parents. And nobody has thought too hard yet about the intricacies of integrating children from such dramatically different circumstances – like bringing poor children who only speak Hindi or Tamil into a school where classes are taught in English.

Meanwhile, in Delhi, where the battle is a little older because the state had earlier tied land grants for private schools to an agreement to take on poor students, streetfighters like Social Jurists’ Agarwal have already confronted schools that try to game the system.

Because the rules require schools to admit 25 percent poor students only in the first year, for instance, some schools dramatically reduced the total number of first graders they admitted, and then added double or triple the number of full-tuition students in the second year. Others took a more direct approach, simply offering parents of poor children cash — as much as $4,000 — to pull their kids out of class.

Teaching poor kids about McDonalds

“In India, people have the attitude of ‘How can my son sit on the same bench as my driver’s son?’ That’s what’s scaring me,” said Anouradha Bakshi of Project Why, a non-profit that runs supplementary afterschool education programs for the poor.

To prove that poor children could excel, Bakshi sent eight slum kids to an elite boarding school. But it took more than the money for tuition to ensure they excelled. She first rented a flat and moved the kids in with her, going the extra mile not only to teach them English but also skills that they’d need to fit in — such as how to eat with a knife and fork and find their way around the menu at McDonalds.

“In one of these uber-rich schools where the child has to go back to his slum or his little house in the evening, it’s easier said than done,” said Bakshi. “Who’s going to help that little child with homework and hold his hand?”

That’s a fair point, and implementation has never been India’s strong suit. But even a bad experience at a good private school is likely to be better than the grim reality of the government-run alternative — which is why more and more of the poorest Indians already send their kids to grassroots private schools in the slums that cost a few dollars per month.

“In Delhi, for instance, the schools run by muncipality are really in a bad state,” Bakshi said. “There’s practically no teaching. The classes are overcrowded. There are schools with no buildings. Those that have buildings have no bathrooms, or no bathrooms for girls, and the teachers are not interested.”

More from GlobalPost: Old problems plague new India

In rural areas, students at government schools are lucky if the teacher even shows up.

Yet with private schools already receiving as many as 1,500 applicants for 25 seats in a class, there’s also a chance that desegregating the posh institutions will allow the government to continue to shirk its responsibility to the vast majority of parents and children.

“As usual, laws are made without thinking,” said Bakshi. “It’s time that we started thinking about these children longterm, not just jumping up and down and saying now these poor children are going to go to these rich schools. Why is the government putting so much money into private schools?”

School choice advocates like the Center for Civil Society’s Shah say that the answer is to empower parents and facilitate the building of more private schools. Through a school voucher system, for instance, the government could help to identify qualifying students and give them power to choose the school where they send their kids — creating a financial incentive for schools to teach the poor.

And by streamlining a system that requires some 36 different licenses to open a school in Delhi and creating incentives for banks to finance education startups, the government can help private players bridge the gap between supply and demand.

“All the things we are talking about how to make businesses easier to open and operate can be applied to schools,” Shah said. Maybe. But if private schools emerge as the backbone of India’s education system, this will be the first country where that has happened.

Global post, 15 April 2012


Private schools evasive in implementing SC order on Right To Education

Access to education, Reservation of seats, Right to Education

KANPUR: The Central government’s initiative to implement Right To Education Act in all the parts of the country has paved a way for poor and backward children in mainstream education. But the question arises is whether the initiative sufficient to provide education to the poor and backward children? TOI conducted a survey in the schools to know what the management thinks about the issue. Authorities of some schools have welcomed the Supreme Court’s order the implementation of RTE. Others remained noncommittal and refrained from making comment.

Many non-governmental schools have welcomed the Supreme Court’s decision of giving 25 per cent quota to children from the underprivileged and below poverty line (BPL) sections in private schools. But, the authorities of a few schools argued that there would have been no need to prescribe 25 per cent BPL quota in private schools, if the government focused on improving the quality of education in schools run by it.

“The poor families and students would not have to require to run after private schools had the structure of government schools and quality of education improved. There is no problem with implementation of Right To Education Act and BPL quota in private schools, but why government is not adopting the modes and methods of practical and technical teaching in government schools,” KV Vincent, principal of Huddard Public School, said. He added that his school is prepared to implement what the court had ordered. He added: “The court has upheld what has been laid down by the Right to Education Act 2009. Realizing that implementation of the order has an economic dimension as the earning of the school will go down by 25%, we are ready with a blueprint.”

Principal of Delhi Public School, Kalyanpur, Archana Nigam treated the RTE issue cautiously. “We will examine the court order and do the needful. But, we already have a notable number of children from humble background,” she said.

Rita Saxena, principal of Padampat Singhania Public School said that her institution was always in support of provisions of the RTE.

“We already have a provision of some reserved seats in the school, which have been allotted to underprivileged or backward class children. However, doing this as an initiative and doing it under a law will be different as it will imply equally for all now,” said Lila Chandra, Principal of SR Education Center. This school also runs separate classes for poor kids after regular school timings.

Similar system of educating for the underprivileged and BPL kids after school can be seen in many schools but not as a part of the main school. The children are accommodated at different timings and in a different way.

According to educationists, such a system defeats the purpose of RTE, which wants to bring children from weaker sections to the mainstream education system and with children of the general class. Under the RTE Act, all the institutions running separate classes for BPL and underprivileged kids will have to induct these students in the main class.

“In other words, 25% of every class will have students from socially and economically disadvantaged families. This was the main motive of RTE as it talks about equality. Having two sets of standards will give room to discrimination,” said Manisha Singh, a teacher in Kendriya Vidyalaya.

The Supreme Court verdict in favour of Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009, better known as the Right to Education Act or RTE Act, is likely to make dramatic changes in the composition of students in private schools and the economic matter of private educational institutions. This has made several school authorities worried and they do not want to support RTE.

According to the RTE, all schools, including privately-run schools, irrespective of the board they are affiliated to, have to admit at least 25% students from socially and economically backward families from this academic year (2012-13). These students will be guaranteed free education from class I till they reach the age of 14.

However, madrasas and institutions of Vedic learning will continue to be outside the ambit of the Act as the HRD ministry has declared them as institutions of religious instruction rather than educational institutions as described under the RTE.

What is RTE?

Free school education students upto 14 years from socially & economically backward families

Does RTE apply to all schools?

Yes, even private, convents, irrespective of the board. Only madrasas & Vedic schools exempted

In what age group will RTE be applied?

Children from age 6 to 14 or from Class 1 to 8

Will there be a fee hike?

Most probably as government subsidy won’t meet full cost of providing free education to 25% students

Will students from poor families be in same classroom?

Yes. RTE says these students must be integrated in the main classroom

Can teachers hold private tuition?

RTE says that no teacher can take private tuitions

The Times of India, 12 April 2012


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